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White spruce in Minnesota builds needles that last six years, whereas the same species in northern Canada builds needles that last 12 years, but are only half as productive. New studies show some surprising variations in the ways that trees process carbon dioxide to make roots, trunks, branches and leaves, going against previous assumptions that the way trees use carbon was fairly constant despite a range of conditions. Two related studies published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by CFANS professor Peter Reich and colleagues in Minnesota, Arizona, Australia, China, Poland and Germany show that understanding these variations can have a big impact on our ability to predict how destroying or creating forests influences climate change. Read the full article.